1. Why your drinking water is unsafe?

    Most waterborne diseases are caused by the presence of bacteria and virus in water.
    Bacteria Causes: gastroenteritis, typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid, dysentery and diarrhea. Virus Causes: polio, dysentery, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea.
    In addition, worm infestations are commonly caused by contaminated water.

  2. Why is it essential to remove dissolved impurities from drinking water?

    Dissolved Impurities such as Pesticides, Rust, Heavy Metals, Arsenic, and Fluoride etc. are harmful to our health. They may cause serious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A & B, jaundice, typhoid and even cancer. They also spoil the taste of water. When these dissolved impurities are removed, the water becomes healthy as well as tasty.

  3. What are the types of harmful impurities are found in drinking water?

    Impurities found in drinking water can be broadly classified into:

    1. Suspended impurities such as mud, dust, sand, bacteria, viruses, cysts, etc.
    2. Dissolved impurities that become soluble in water such as-
    • Pesticides (commonly found in bore well  water)
    • Arsenic & Fluoride (found in ground well water)
    • Heavy Metals salts like mercury, lead, copper, cadmium (from industrial wastes)
  4. Why boiling alone does not make water fully safe for drinking?

    Boiling kills bacteria and viruses but does not remove harmful dissolved impurities such as Pesticides, Rust, Heavy Metals, Arsenic, and Fluoride etc. Just as we cannot remove dissolved salts from water by boiling, similarly we cannot remove dissolved impurities from water by boiling. But it removes dissolved oxygen from water which your body needs to aid digestion. The presence of such impurities in water may cause serious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A & B, jaundice, typhoid and even cancer.

  5. What is the desirable quality of drinking water?
    As per the Bureau of Indian Standards, the desirable quality of drinking water is that which has TDS (Total Dissolved Salts) content of 500 ppm or less (ppm stands for parts of the salt present in a million parts of water). Where water of this quality is not easily available, the compromise level is water having up to 2000 ppm.
  6. Where does my drinking water come from?
    The drinking water that is supplied to our homes comes either from surface water or groundwater. Surface water gets collected in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs whereas ground water gets collected in pores and spaces within rocks and underground aquifers. We obtain groundwater by drilling wells and pumping it to the surface.Public water systems provide surface water and groundwater. Water treatment systems are either government or privately-held facilities. Surface water systems withdraw water from the source, treat it, and deliver it to our homes whereas ground water systems withdraw and deliver water, but they do not always treat it.
  7. Which are the different types of drinking water contaminants?
    Contaminants can be Inorganic, Organic, Biological, or Radiological substance or matter in water.

    • Inorganic: Inorganic contaminants include the minerals and toxic metals. Some of these contaminants like calcium and magnesium are naturally occurring. Other contaminants like copper and lead usually get into the water through pipes. Contaminants such as lead and arsenic can be quite dangerous and hence the water needs to be treated.
    • Radioactive: Radioactive contaminants are chemical elements with an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons resulting in unstable atoms that can emit ionizing radiation. Examples of radiological contaminants include cesium, plutonium, and uranium.
    • Organic: Organic contaminants are carbon-based, which means they are derived from petroleum. Since they are carbon-based, they can easily bind with human tissue which can make them extremely toxic in very tiny quantities.
    • Biological: Biological contaminants are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants. Examples of biological or microbial contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasites.
  8. How do contaminants get into my drinking water?

    There are many sources that lead to water contamination. Some of the most common sources that lead to water contamination are:

    • Naturally occurring chemicals and minerals (for example arsenic, radon, uranium)
    • Local land use practices (for example fertilizers, pesticides, livestock, concentrated animal feeding operations)
    • Manufacturing processes
    • Sewer overflow
    • Malfunctioning wastewater treatment systems (for example nearby septic systems
  9. What type of health issues can be related to water quality?
    The presence of certain contaminants in our water can lead to health issues, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised persons may be especially at risk after drinking contaminated water. For example, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children.
  10. Is my tap water safe to drink?
    Cities are in a desperate need of replacement from old age and wear. Water contamination can occur at almost any point in the delivery channel including lead leaching from corroded pipe solder, bacteria entering the system from water main breaks, or gardening chemicals back-siphoned from a careless neighbor.To make matters worse, most cities also add chemicals like chlorine and fluoride to their water. The water quality in India is most likely to decline in the coming years. The best way to protect your family from the increasingly wide range of contaminants found in today’s tap water is by installing a reverse osmosis water system.
  11. What is hard water?
    The most common hardness causing minerals are calcium and magnesium that is dissolved in water. Hard water is the most common problem faced by a lot of people these days. Hard water spots your glasses and dishes, makes laundry dull and causes soap scum and scale to build-up making cleaning a chore.

    Term Grains per Gallon (gpg) ppm (mg/L)
    Soft 1.0 17.0
    Slightly Hard 1.0-3.5 17.1-60
    Moderately Hard 3.5-7.0 60-120
    Hard 7.0-10.5 120-180
    Very Hard “; ?>10.5 “; ?>180
  12. How hard is your water?
    Having your water tested will help you determine your exact needs, even though you may already know you have one or more water problems. In determining your water treatment needs, a water expert will look at a number of things. For example, the hardness level of the water and the size of your family will influence the size and type of equipment.
  13. How much water you consume on a daily basis and what is the input water pressure?

    The amount of water consumed and the water pressure factors to consider while selecting a water purifier for your home. Household size may influence consumption, but different families all have different needs. Every factor should be considered, including family growth and guest visits.

  14. What should be the desired performance of a modern water purifier?

    The need of the hour is to have a purification technology which effectively removes harmful dissolved impurities such as Pesticides, Rust, Heavy Metals, Arsenic, Fluoride, etc apart from other impurities like bacteria and viruses. At the same time, the purifier should retain essential natural minerals in drinking water. It should also work efficiently over a long period of time.

  15. How do I know which water purifier I need for my office/home?

    Before you buy a purifier you need to get your water tested to find out what water condition you are faced with. Once you get the results you can pick a purifier that is equipped with the right technology to treat your water.

  16. What types of technologies are available for purifying water?
    The most commonly used methods of purification are Chlorination, Boiling, Ultrafiltration (UF), Ultra Violet (UV) Disinfection and Reverse Osmosis (RO) Purification.
  17. What are the disadvantages of purifiers using only UV technology?
    UV purification has been popular since last few years. It does kill bacteria and viruses but does not remove dissolved impurities such as Pesticides, Rust, Heavy Metals, Arsenic, and Fluoride etc.
  18. How does an RO system filter water?

    RO systems typically filter water using the following steps:

    1.    Tap water flows through a sediment filter to remove dirt, rust, and other solid objects.
    2. The water then flows into a carbon filter which removes 98% of the chlorine and organic chemicals.
    3. The next stop is the reverse osmosis membrane which separates up to 99% of the dissolved contaminants from the water molecules. These removed impurities are rinsed down the drain leaving behind only safe water.
    4.    This water is stored in a reservoir tank and is accessed through a faucet.
    5.    The final step involves pushing water through a carbon block polishing filter to enhance the taste & odor.Reverse osmosis removes more contaminants than other carbon, faucet or pitcher systems. RO systems can remove nitrates, sodium, and other dissolved inorganic and organic compounds that other systems can miss.
  19. What points should be considered before going for an RO purifier?
    1. RO is to be resorted to only in cases where the salt content of water to be used for drinking is much higher than advisable.
    2. Even here the reduction of the salt content to the level of 10 or 20 ppm is counterproductive. If the salt content of the water is very high even for non-potable purposes, rainwater harvesting often works wonders.
    3. In the cases where the water contains coliform bacteria, the source for their presence should be traced and the contamination eliminated. While RO may be advised, elimination of the cause is the safer and preferred route and ultimately the cheaper route also.
    4. Those who go in for RO for water with high salt content are well advised to assess the volume likely to be subjected per day and ask the supplier how long will the media work effectively with that volume, what is the cost involved for the replacement of the media and what are the monthly running costs, apart from the capital cost.
    5.   They also should question any proposal to reduce salt content to less than 500 ppm.
  20. How effective is Reverse Osmosis filtration compared to other methods?
    RO is the most convenient and effective method of water filtration. Reverse osmosis is the process by which water molecules are forced through a semipermeable membrane under pressure. The membrane in an RO System filters out any impurities smaller than one micron.Non-RO water filters typically use a single activated carbon cartridge to treat water. They are less effective, and the pore size on these filter media are much bigger, generally 0.5 – 10 micron. They can filter out coarse particles, sediments and elements only up to their micron rating. Anything finer and most dissolved substances cannot be filtered out. As a result, water is safe enough to be consumed.
  21. Can RO water purifier be connected to inverter power?
    It’s recommended to connect RO water purifier with inverter power if there is any frequent power failure.
  22. Why are RO Water purifiers are said to be better than UV Water purifiers?
    UV water purifier does not change the taste of water and does not remove dissolved impurities, whereas the RO water purifier makes the water tasty. There is no storage in UV water purifier, whereas RO purifier has a storage tank. If there is no electricity UV purifier does not deliver water, whereas RO water purifier will deliver already stored water.
  23. Is RO water really as good as bottled water?
    Yes, Reverse Osmosis Systems remove about 97% of the total dissolved solids (TDS) from your water, including salt and sodium. When you read the labels on any bottled water, you will discover that reverse osmosis is the same process which is being used by most bottled water manufacturers, so in effect, you’re really getting bottled water without any hassle.
  24. Is there any water wastage during RO purification process?
    Yes, RO and RO+UV water purifiers produce a lot of waste water almost 70% water is wasted during the RO purification process. This wastage water can’t drinkable. Some of the brands challenging that their RO water purifier not producing any waste water.
  25. What is 100% RO?
    In some of the ordinary RO+UV water purifiers, some amount of water is made to bypass the RO membrane. Due to this harmful substance like TDS, heavy metals, chemicals and pesticides also pass through. Whereas in 100% RO water purifier, 100% of the water is passed through the RO membrane which ensures maximum purification of water.
  26. What can we do with the RO reject water?
    In RO systems of small capacity suitable for domestic purposes, the rejected component may be as high as 45%. The process, therefore, is a wasteful one with much of the water having to be thrown away.Diverting large volumes of this highly salty water into the sewage line could result in acting against the smooth movement of its contents. The reject will not be tolerated by normal garden plants. It will form deposits on the floor and sanitary ware. It is also not advisable to divert it to the septic tank.If the water subjected to RO has less than 1000ppm say, then the salt content in the reject water will not be much and it can be used for gardening or flushing. But the point is that this water need not be subjected to RO at all in the first place.
  27. What are the disadvantages of purifiers using only RO technology?
    RO purification is the latest technology to come up in the market and has gained popularity. Apart from killing bacteria and viruses, it effectively removes dissolved impurities as well. However, while doing so, it removes natural minerals also from the water which are essential to our health. Thus it renders the water totally mineral-less. Such water can prove to be dangerous in the long run as it can lead to a mineral deficiency in the body.
  28. What are the advantages of double purification by RO + UV/UF?
    Unlike conventional water purification processes based on a single technology, double purification by RO and UV/UF has the following distinct advantages:

    • Double purification leaves less scope for impurities to pass through.
    • Ensures bacteria and viruses are totally killed.
    • Although RO purification process removes even dissolved impurities, backup purification by UV and UF processes makes the water 100% Safe all the time.
  29. Why is it essential to retain minerals in RO water purifier?
    Natural minerals are essential for our health. In conventional RO water purifiers, these natural minerals get removed along with dissolved impurities. This makes the water mineral-less. Such water may be harmful to our health and can cause a mineral deficiency in the body.
  30. What is TDS?
    Total dissolved solid (TDS) are the total amount of mobile charged ions including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in given volume of water. This includes anything present in water other than the pure water(H2O) molecules and suspended solids. Its unit is PPM (parts per million) or mg/L.
  31. What you mean by TDS of water is 1000 PPM?
    As per international standard, it means out of one million parts of water solution, 1000 parts are the dissolved solids like calcium, magnesium, iron arsenic, fluorides etc.As per Indian standard, in one liter of water, 1000 mg are the dissolved solids.
  32. How TDS of water is measured?
    By TDS meter.
  33. What do you mean by Water softener?
    A purifying device that softens hard water by removing certain minerals.
  34. Why is there a need of TDS balancer in RO water purifiers?
    Our body requires natural minerals in balanced quantity. These minerals get removed along with dissolved impurities. TDS balancer can retain the essential minerals as per requirement.
  35. Why is there a need for UV after passing the water from RO membrane?
    Double the purification leaves less scope for impurities to pass through RO and UV. Ensures that bacteria and virus are totally killed.
  36. What is SCMT?
    SCMT (Silver Charged Membrane Technology) is an additional stage of purification to prevent any potential secondary microbial contamination post RO purification. Double protection ensures purified and healthy water.
  37. What is RO+SCMT?
    It is double purification process to ensure maximum purification of water. In this process 100% of the water is passed through the RO membrane and double purified by SCMT.